Scientists create fifth state of matter (and that brings us closer to teleportation)

Scientists create fifth state of matter (and that brings us closer to teleportation)


In these times it is difficult to discern between real science ... and science fiction. It is not solid, neither gaseous, nor plasmatic. It is not even really liquid: the fifth state of matter, or Bose-Einstein condensate, is composed of atoms that are at the lowest level of energy. This causes everyone to become identical, acting the same as everyone else and obtaining a hitherto unknown form. The Bose-Einstein condensate has a collective behavior: makes matter a single great atom.
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The only way to obtain this fifth state of matter is by cooling the atoms below the energy level, that is, close to the so-called absolute zero.German scientists from the QUEST Leibniz Research School managed to create the fifth state of matter in space and that lasted 6 minutes, contrary to the few seconds that the Bose-Einstein condensate had lasted in other experiments.

It is believed that the fifth state of matter can have many technological applications.
Therefore, the calculations made by Bose and Einstein decades ago have not stopped being invoked by scientists.
In 1995, physicists Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman (winners of the Nobel Prize in 2001) managed to cool the atoms enough to create the fifth state of matter from a laser. This was the first time that the Bose-Einstein condensate could be observed. But as his method caused the movement of atoms in a magnetic confinement dependent on gravity, his experiment did not allow to observe the fifth state of matter.
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Then, in 2010, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics filled a cylindrical capsule the size of a door with a few million rubidium atoms - a soft alkaline metal that cools down more easily - trapped on a chip with lasers, energy, solenoids and a camera. The scientists threw the capsule from a tower: zero gravity during the fall allowed to generate the fifth state of matter in the atom chip, but only for a few seconds, which were captured by the camera.

For its part, the experiment of the Germans that took place in January of this year is the first that manages to create the fifth state in space. Thanks to the low-gravity conditions, the researchers were able to extend atomistic immobilization for up to 6 minutes, which led to 110 remotely controlled experiments.

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This, together with the recent experiment that created liquid light at room temperature - which is a kind of fifth state of matter that is obtained from light - opens without a doubt a new episode in technological development. Thanks to its conductive qualities and its unaltered flow, which allows transmitting information and energy without waste, it is believed that liquid light could be the central element of teleportation devices in the near future.

Although, for now, liquid light is expected to be used for the production of superconducting materials for devices such as LEDs, solar panels and lasers. But although we are far from teleportation, there is no doubt that it is increasingly difficult to discern between real science and science fiction.